Dr. Viktor Winschel

Founder and CEO

  • Money Theory and Political Econometrics

  • Inventor of the Economic Engine

Florian Schulze


  • Data Products

  • Business Development

Regine Haschka-Helmer

Founding Advisor

  • Digital Business Models

  • Sales

Dr. Andreas Schröder


  • Mathematics, Numerics

  • Game Theory and Risk Modelling

Dr. Philipp Zahn

Mechanism Design and Game Theory

  • Behavioural Economics

  • Experimental Design

Dr. Evguenia Sprits

Monetary Economics and Game Theory

  • Mechanism Design

  • Custom and Crypto Currencies

Prof. Dr. Neil Ghani


  • Programming Language Design

  • Open Games

Dr. Jules Hedges

Open Games

  • Mathematics

  • Computer Science

Dr. Renée Menéndez


  • Macroeconomics

  • Money Theory


Our approach is rather simple.


Social reality is complicated and we need the best possible tools and theories. After all, at OiCOS we want to create the best possible ecosystems and societies since these are the most important things for live on earth.


Fortunately, the eternally unchanging insight that "everything is changing" allows us to see what makes the whole into more than its parts.

An ecosystem is a context with a living content. The content is a social system once the living things organise themselves in groups. This is where we are living, what we are modelling when we try to understand our context and what we mean by ecosystems  - contextual social systems. A living being is social if it maintains relations. All living beings are social.

We have been educated in social and economic theory and extended it in our research into a reflexive science of ecosystems by applying the most modern technology for implementing the ancient process oriented approach to understand the world. It is the only approach we know to be suited to understand the complex nature of ecosystems. It is Heraclitus idea of panta rhei - everything flows. Process orientation is most consistently implemented in mathematics by category theory. It is also used to organise mathematics itself since it is the mathematical theory of structure and organisation.

By switching from objects to processes as the basic building blocks of the universe, we can see how "the whole is more than the parts". The missing piece in Aristoteles saying is that the whole also includes relations, functions or processes between the parts. Adding relations seems to be an obvious starting point for social theories. But it is not, at least not in current mathematical economics, which is based on the usual object oriented set theoretical mathematics. The inability to add relations and to define contexts results in damages in contexts like families, companies, societies and nature. These damages are not only very expensive but very life threatening. Being at war with yourself and your very nature has no chance of success - by nature.

With process orientation we can add relations and understand  social systems. There is no divine miracle or mystical being with a beard in the sky - there are just colimits (the cones in the picture below):

The complex link gg' on top, from cQ=A to cQ'=A', is called an emergent property of the whole at level n+1 which is not present in the parts at level n. Subatomic particles result in atoms as an emergent phenomenon, life in humans is emergent from the bunch of chemicals, organisations emerge from communication between humans and ecosystem and societies result from communication of communication.

We believe that the appropriate tools of mind are key to understanding, designing and managing ecosystems. This is why we have gone all the way to the basics of social sciences and combined the best tools from economics, computer science, mathematics, statistics, biology, philosophy or linguistics for the good of life on earth.

Research Publications

Uncertainty Quantification and Global Sensitivity Analysis for Economic Models

(2019), Quantitative Economics, (preprint), Bruno Sudret, Stefano Marelli, Daniel Harenberg, Viktor Winschel

Compositional Game Theory 

(2018), Logic in Computer Science, (preprint) Neil Ghani, Jules Hedges, Viktor Winschel, Philipp Zahn

Higher-Order Decision Theory

(2017) Algorithmic Decision Theory, (preprint), Evguenia Winschel, Philipp Zahn, Jules Hedges, Paulo Oliva

Selection Equilibria in Higher Order Games

(2016), Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages, (preprint),  Philipp Zahn, Jules Hedges, Paulo Oliva, Viktor Winschel, Evguenia Sprit

Coalgebraic Analysis of Subgame-perfect Equilibria in Infinite Games without Discounting

(2015), Mathematical Structures in Computer Science, Samson Abramsky, Viktor Winschel

Solving, Estimating and Selecting Nonlinear Dynamic Models without the Curse of Dimensionality

(2010) Econometrica, Markus Krätzig, Viktor Winschel

Likelihood Approximation by Numerical Integration on Sparse Grids

(2008) Journal of Econometrics, Florian Heiss, Viktor Winschel

Public Deficits and Borrowing Costs: The Missing Half of the Market Discipline

(2001), Journal of Public Finance and Public Choice, Friedrich Heinemann, Viktor Winschel

A Coalgebraic Semantics of Compositional Games in Economics

(2013), arXiV, Achim Blumensath, Viktor Winschel

The Empirical Analysis of Exchange Rate Regimes and Nonlinear Structural Econometrics

(2005), PhD Thesis university of Mannheim, Viktor Winschel

Our research group and network

Dusko Pavlovic, Brendan Fong, Bob Coecke, Samson Abramsky, David Spivak and many more at Oxford, MIT, Glasgow, Amsterdam, Nijmegen, Hawaii and other universities, research institutions and think tanks

Workshops and Conferences